Reporting standards in general
Notes to the consolidated financial statements
The consolidated financial statements for the period 1 January to 31 December 2017 have been prepared in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) as adopted by the EU and in accordance with Danish disclosure requirements for listed companies. Additional Danish disclosure requirements for annual reports are imposed by the Statutory Order on Adoption of IFRS issued under the Danish Financial Statements Act.
The consolidated financial statements are presented in Danish kroner (DKK), which is considered the primary currency of the ALK Group's activities and the functional currency of the parent company.
The consolidated financial statements are presented on a historical cost basis, apart from certain financial instruments which are measured at fair value. Otherwise, the accounting policies are as described below.
The accounting policies are unchanged from last year with the exception of a change in presentation of special items in the income statement. As of 2017, Management has decided that such expenses and incomes shall be included in the relevant cost lines in the income statement and no longer be shown separately as special items, as Management finds this to give a more true and fair picture of the financial performance as these expenses are now presented as part of the function they belong to in the consolidated financial statements. Due to this, comparative figures have been reclassified to the relevant items in the income statement. The reported net profit, balance sheet, equity and earnings per share are not impacted by the change in presentation. In note 26 the effect of the reclassification is shown.
Effect of new financial reporting standards
The ALK Group has implemented all new and amended standards and interpretations (IFRIC) which are effective for the financial year 2017. This has not resulted in any changes to the accounting policies. A number of IFRS standards, amended standards and IFRIC interpretations which are effective on or after 1 January 2018 have not been implemented. Based on a preliminary assessment it is estimated that these standards and interpretations will have no material impact on the consolidated financial statements for 2017 and in the coming years.
IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers is effective for financial years beginning on or after 1 January 2018. The ALK Group has considered the new revenue recognition requirements in relation to the nature of the activities in the ALK Group and determined that the standard will have limited impact on revenue recognition and measurement, while the level of disclosure is determined to increase. The ALK Group has decided not to pre-implement IFRS 15 for 2017.
IFRS 9 Financial instruments is effective for annual reports beginning on or after 1 January 2018. The ALK Group has considered the new standard according to the different financial instruments present in the ALK Group. The new standard results in an insignificant impact on the ALK Group in relation to provision for doubtful trade receivables. Further, this will lead to increased disclosures in the ALK Group’s consolidated financial statements mainly for the areas of credit risks and provision for bad debt.
IFRS 16 Leases is effective for financial years beginning on or after 1 January 2019. The ALK Group has considered the new standard and has assessed the impact for the ALK Group. The assessment shows, based on present leasing agreements, that the new requirements will lead to recognition of right of use assets in the region of DKK 250-350 million as well as a minor positive effect on the profit/loss statement (EBITDA).
The consolidated financial statements
The consolidated financial statements comprise the financial statements of ALK-Abelló A/S (the parent company) and companies (subsidiaries) controlled by the parent company. The parent company is considered to control a subsidiary when it holds, directly or indirectly, more than 50% of the voting rights or is otherwise able to exercise or actually exercises a controlling influence.
Basis of consolidation
The consolidated financial statements are prepared on the basis of the financial statements of ALK-Abelló A/S and its subsidiaries. The consolidated financial statements are prepared as a consolidation of items of a uniform nature. The financial statements used for consolidation are prepared in accordance with the ALK Group’s accounting policies.
On consolidation, intra-group income and expenses, intra-group balances and dividends, and gains and losses arising on intra-group transactions are eliminated.
Newly acquired or newly established companies or operations are recognised in the consolidated financial statements from the date of acquisition or establishment. The date of acquisition is the date when control of the company actually passes to the ALK Group. Companies sold or discontinued are recognised in the consolidated income statement up to the date of disposal. The date of disposal is the date when control of the company actually passes to a third party.
Acquisitions are accounted for using the purchase method, according to which the identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities of companies acquired are measured at fair value at the date of acquisition. Non-current assets held for sale are, however, measured at fair value less expected costs to sell.
Restructuring costs are only recognised in the take-over balance sheet if they represent a liability to the acquired company. The tax effect of revaluations is taken into account.
The cost of a company is the fair value of the consideration paid. If the final determination of the consideration is conditional on one or more future events these are recognised at their fair value as of the acquisition date.
Costs that can be attributed directly to the transfer of ownership are recognised in the income statement when they are defrayed. As a general rule, adjustments to estimates of conditional consideration are recognised directly to the income statement.
If the fair value of the acquired assets or liabilities subsequently proves different from the values calculated at the acquisition date, cost is adjusted for up to 12 months after the date of acquisition.
Any excess of the cost of an acquired company over the fair value of the acquired assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities (goodwill) is recognised as an asset under intangible assets and tested for impairment at least once a year.
Gains or losses on disposal of subsidiaries
Gains or losses on disposal of subsidiaries are stated as the difference between the disposal amount and the carrying amount of net assets including goodwill at the date of disposal, accumulated foreign exchange adjustments recognised in other comprehensive income, and anticipated disposal costs. The disposal amount is measured as the fair value of the consideration received.
Foreign currency translation
On initial recognition, transactions denominated in currencies other than DKK are translated at average exchange rates, which are an approximation of the exchange rates at the transaction date. Receivables and debt and other monetary items not settled at the balance sheet date are translated at the closing rate.
Exchange rate differences between the exchange rate at the date of the transaction and the exchange rate at the date of payment or the balance sheet date, respectively, are recognised in the income statement under financial items. Tangible assets and intangible assets, inventories and other non-monetary assets acquired in foreign currency and measured based on historical cost are translated at the exchange rates at the transaction date.
On recognition in the consolidated financial statements of subsidiaries whose financial statements are presented in a functional currency other than DKK, the income statements are translated at average exchange rates for the respective months, unless these deviate materially from the actual exchange rates at the transaction dates. In that case, the actual exchange rates are used. Balance sheet items are translated at the exchange rates at the balance sheet date. Goodwill is considered to belong to the acquired company in question and is translated at the exchange rate at the balance sheet date.
Exchange rate differences arising on the translation of foreign subsidiaries’ opening balance sheet items to the exchange rates at the balance sheet date and on the translation of the income statements from average exchange rates to exchange rates at the balance sheet date are recognised in other comprehensive income.
Foreign exchange rate adjustment of receivables or debt to subsidiaries which are considered part of the parent company’s overall investment in the subsidiary in question are also recognised in other comprehensive income in the consolidated financial statements.
Derivative financial instruments
Derivative financial instruments are measured at fair value on initial recognition. Subsequently, they are measured at fair value at the balance sheet date.
Changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments designated as and qualifying for recognition as fair value hedges of a recognised asset or a recognised liability are recognised in the income statement together with any changes in the value of the hedged asset or hedged liability.
Changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments designated as and qualifying for recognition as effective hedges of future transactions are recognised in other comprehensive income. When the hedged transactions are realised, cumulative changes are recognised as part of the cost of the transactions in question.
Changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments used to hedge net investments in foreign subsidiaries are recognised in other comprehensive income to the extent that the hedge is effective. On disposal of the foreign subsidiary in question, the cumulative changes are transferred to the income statement.
For derivative financial instruments that do not qualify for hedge accounting, changes in fair value are recognised as financial items in the income statement as they occur.
Share-based incentive plans
Share-based incentive plans (equity-settled share-based payments) which comprise share option plans, conditional share plans and performance shares are measured at the grant date at fair value and recognised in the income statement under the respective functions over the vesting period and offset in equity.
The fair value of share options is determined using the Black & Scholes model.
The share option agreement entitled the ALK Group to demand cash settlement of the options. Cash-settled share options are recognised as other liabilities and adjusted to fair value when the ALK Group has an obligation to settle in cash. The subsequent adjustment to fair value is recognised in the income statement under financial income or financial expenses.
Tax on the profit for the year comprises the year’s current tax and changes in deferred tax. The tax expense relating to the profit/loss for the year is recognised in the income statement, and the tax expense relating to items recognised in other comprehensive income and directly in equity, respectively, is recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity. Exchange rate adjustments of deferred tax are recognised as part of the adjustment of deferred tax for the year.
Current tax payable and receivable is recognised in the balance sheet as the expected tax on the taxable income for the year, adjusted for tax paid on account.
The current tax charge for the year is calculated based on the tax rates and rules enacted at the balance sheet date.
Deferred tax is measured using the balance sheet liability method on all temporary differences between the carrying amount and the tax base of assets and liabilities. However, deferred tax is not recognised on temporary differences relating to the initial recognition of goodwill or the initial recognition of a transaction, apart from business combinations, and where the temporary difference existing at the date of initial recognition affects neither profit/loss for the year nor taxable income. Deferred tax is calculated based on the planned use of each asset and settlement of each liability, respectively. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and tax rules that, based on legislation enacted or in reality enacted at the balance sheet date, are expected to apply in the respective countries when the deferred tax is expected to crystallise as current tax. Changes in deferred tax as a result of changed tax rates or rules are recognised in the income statement, in other comprehensive income or in equity, depending on where the deferred tax was originally recognised. Deferred tax related to equity transactions is recognised in equity.
Deferred tax assets, including the tax value of tax loss carry-forwards, are recognised in the balance sheet at the value at which the asset is expected to be realised, either through a set-off against deferred tax liabilities or as net assets to be offset against future positive taxable income. At each balance sheet date, it is reassessed whether it is likely that there will be sufficient future taxable income for the deferred tax asset to be utilised.
The parent company is included in national joint taxation with Lundbeckfond Invest A/S and its Danish subsidiaries. The tax charge for the year is allocated among the jointly taxed companies in proportion to the taxable incomes of individual companies, taking into account taxes paid.
Revenue from the sale of goods for resale and manufactured goods is recognised in the income statement if delivery and transfer of risk to the purchaser have taken place.
Revenue is measured as the fair value of the consideration received or receivable.
Revenue is measured exclusive of VAT, taxes etc. charged on behalf of third parties and less any commissions and discounts in connection with sales.
Furthermore, revenue includes licence income and royalties from outlicensed products as well as up-front payments, milestone payments and other revenues in connection with research and development partnerships. These revenues are recognised in accordance with the agreements and when it is probable that future economic benefits will flow to the ALK Group and these benefits can be measured reliably. Non-refundable payments that are not attributable to subsequent research and development activities are recognised when the related right is obtained, whereas payments attributable to subsequent research and development activities are recognised over the term of the activities. When combined contracts are entered into, the elements of the contracts are identified and assessed separately for accounting purposes.
Cost of sales
The item comprises cost of sales and production costs incurred in generating the revenue for the year. Costs for raw materials, consumables, goods for resale, production staff and a proportion of production overheads, including maintenance and depreciation, amortisation and impairment of tangible assets and intangible assets used in production as well as operation, administration and management of factories are recognised in cost of sales and production costs. In addition, the costs and write-down to net realisable value of obsolete and slow-moving goods are recognised.
Research and development expenses
The item comprises research and development expenses, including expenses incurred for wages and salaries, amortisation and other overheads as well as costs relating to research partnerships. Research expenses are recognised in the income statement when incurred. Due to the long development periods and significant uncertainties in relation to the development of new products, including risks regarding clinical trials and regulatory approvals, it is the assessment that most of the ALK Group’s development expenses do not meet the capitalisation criteria in IAS 38, Intangible Assets. Consequently, development expenses are generally recognised in the income statement when incurred. Development expenses relating to individual minor development projects running for short-term periods and subject to limited risk are capitalised under other intangible assets.
Sales and marketing expenses
The item comprises selling and marketing expenses, including salaries and expenses relating to sales staff, advertising and exhibitions, depreciation, amortisation and impairment losses on tangible assets and intangible assets used in the sales and marketing process as well as other indirect costs.
The item comprises expenses incurred for management and administration, including expenses for administrative staff and management, office expenses and depreciation, amortisation and impairment losses on tangible assets and intangible assets used in administration.
Other operating income and other operating expenses
Other operating income and other operating expenses comprise income and expenses of a secondary nature relative to the principal activities of the ALK Group.
Financial items comprise interest receivable and interest payable, the interest element of finance lease payments, realised and unrealised gains and losses on securities, cash and marketable securities, liabilities and foreign currency transactions, mortgage amortisation premium/ allowance etc. and supplements/provisions under the on-account tax scheme.
Interest income and expenses are accrued based on the principal and the effective rate of interest. The effective rate of interest is the discount rate to be used on discounting expected future payments in relation to the financial asset or the financial liability so that their present value corresponds to the carrying amount of the asset or liability, respectively.
On initial recognition, goodwill is measured and recognised as the excess of the cost of the acquired company over the fair value of the acquired assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities, as described under Business Combinations.
On recognition of goodwill, the goodwill amount is allocated to those of the ALK Group’s activities that generate separate cash flows (cash-generating units). The determination of cash-generating units is based on the ALK Group’s management structure and internal financial management and reporting.
Goodwill is not amortised, but is tested for impairment at least once a year, as described below.
Acquired intellectual property rights in the form of patents, brands, licenses, software, customer base and similar rights are measured at cost less accumulated amortisation and impairment.
Interest expenses on loans to finance the development of intangible assets are included in cost if they relate to the production period. Other borrowing costs are charged to the income statement.
The cost of software includes costs of instalment and direct salaries.
Such acquired intellectual property rights are amortised on a straight-line basis over the contract period, not exceeding 10 years. If the actual useful life is shorter than either the remaining life or the contract period, the asset is amortised over this shorter useful life. Acquired intellectual property rights are written down to their recoverable amount where this is lower than the carrying amount, as described below.
Individual minor development projects running for short-term periods which fulfill the requirement in IFRS are capitalised under other intangible assets as described under ‘Research and development expenses’ and are measured at cost less accumulated amortisation and impairment.
Intangible assets with indeterminable useful lives are not amortised, but are tested for impairment at least once a year. To the extent that the carrying amount of the assets exceeds the recoverable amount, the assets are written down to this lower amount, as described below.
Land and buildings, plant and machinery and other fixtures and equipment are measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment. Land is not depreciated.
Cost comprises the purchase price and any costs directly attributable to the acquisition and any preparation costs incurred until the date when the asset is available for use.
The cost of assets held under finance leases is determined as the lower of the fair value of the assets and the present value of future minimum lease payments.
Interest expenses on loans to finance the manufacture of tangible assets are included in cost if they relate to the production period. Other borrowing costs are taken to the income statement.
The depreciation base is cost less the estimated residual value at the end of the useful life. The residual value, estimated at the acquisition date and reassessed annually, is determined as the amount the company expects to obtain for the asset less costs of disposal.
The cost of an asset is divided into smaller components that are depreciated separately if such components have different useful lives.
Assets are depreciated on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives as follows:
Buildings 25-50 years
Plant and machinery 5-10 years
Other fixtures and equipment 5-10 years
Depreciation methods, useful lives and residual values are reassessed once a year. Tangible assets are written down to the recoverable amount, if lower, cf. below.
Impairment of tangible assets and intangible assets
The carrying amounts of tangible assets and intangible assets with determinable useful lives are reviewed at the balance sheet date to determine whether there are any indications of impairment. If such indications are found, the recoverable amount of the asset is calculated to determine any need for an impairment write-down and, if so, the amount of the write-down. For intangible assets with indeterminable useful lives and goodwill, the recoverable amount is calculated annually, regardless of whether any indications of impairment have been found.
If the asset does not generate any cash flows independently of other assets, the recoverable amount is calculated for the smallest cash-generating unit that includes the asset.
The recoverable amount is calculated as the higher of the fair value less costs to sell and the value in use of the asset or the cash-generating unit, respectively. In determining the value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value, using a discount rate reflecting current market assessments of the time value of money as well as risks that are specific to the asset or the cash-generating unit and which have not been taken into account in the estimated future cash flows.
If the recoverable amount of the asset or the cash-generating unit is lower than the carrying amount, the carrying amount is written down to the recoverable amount. For cash-generating units, the write-down is allocated in such a way that goodwill amounts are written down first, and any remaining need for write-down is allocated to other assets in the unit, although no individual assets are written down to a value lower than their fair value less costs to sell.
Impairment write-downs are recognised in the income statement. If write-downs are subsequently reversed as a result of changes in the assumptions on which the calculation of the recoverable amount is based, the carrying amount of the asset or the cash-generating unit is increased to the adjusted recoverable amount, not, however, exceeding the carrying amount that the asset or cash-generating unit would have had, had the write-down not been made. Impairment of goodwill is not reversed.
Other financial assets
On initial recognition, marketable securities are measured at cost, corresponding to fair value. They are subsequently measured at fair value at the balance sheet date, and changes to the fair value are recognised under net financials in the income statement.
On initial recognition, investments and other financial assets are measured at cost, corresponding to fair value. They are subsequently measured at cost or amortised cost at the balance sheet date.
Inventories are measured at cost determined under the FIFO method or net realisable value where this is lower.
Cost comprises raw materials, goods for resale, consumables and direct payroll costs as well as fixed and variable production overheads. Variable production overheads comprise indirect materials and payroll costs and are allocated based on predetermined costs of the goods actually produced. Fixed production overheads comprise maintenance of and depreciation on the machines, factory buildings and equipment used in the manufacturing process as well as the cost of factory management and administration. Fixed production overheads are allocated based on the normal capacity of the production plant.
The net realisable value of inventories is calculated as the expected selling price less completion costs and costs incurred in making the sale.
On initial recognition, receivables are measured at fair value, and subsequently they are measured at amortised cost. Receivables are written down for anticipated losses. A provision account is used for this purpose.
Prepayments are recognised as an asset and comprise incurred costs relating to subsequent financial years. Prepayments are measured at cost.
Dividend is recognised as a liability when adopted by the shareholders at the annual general meeting.
Acquisition and sales sums arising on the purchase and sale of treasury shares and dividends on treasury shares are recognised directly in retained earnings under equity.
Pensions and similar liabilities
The ALK Group has entered into pension agreements and similar agreements with some of the ALK Group’s employees.
In respect of defined contribution plans, the ALK Group pays in fixed contributions to independent pension funds etc. The contributions are recognised in the income statement during the period in which the employee renders the related service. Payments due are recognised as a liability in the balance sheet.
In respect of defined benefit plans, the ALK Group is required to pay an agreed benefit in connection with the retirement of the employees covered by the plan, e.g. in the form of a fixed amount or a percentage of the salary at retirement.
For defined benefit plans, an annual actuarial assessment is made of the net present value of future benefits to which the employees have earned the right through their past service for the ALK Group and which will have to be paid under the plan. The Projected Unit Credit Method is applied to determine net present value.
The net present value is calculated based on assumptions of the future development of salary, interest, inflation, mortality and disability rates.
The net present value of pension liabilities is recognised in the balance sheet, after deduction of the fair value of any assets attached to the plan, as either plan assets or pension liabilities, depending on whether the net amount is an asset or a liability, as described below.
If the assumptions made with respect to discount factor, inflation, mortality and disability are changed, or if there is a discrepancy between the expected and realised return on plan assets, actuarial gains or losses occur. These gains and losses concerning previous financial years are recognised in other comprehensive income.
Provisions are recognised when, as a consequence of a past event during the financial year or previous years, the ALK Group has a legal or constructive obligation, and it is likely that settlement of the obligation will require an outflow of the company’s financial resources.
Provisions are measured as the best estimate of the costs required to settle the obligations at the balance sheet date. Provisions with an expected term of more than a year after the balance sheet date are measured at present value.
Mortgage debt is recognised on the raising of a loan at cost, equaling fair value of the proceeds received, and net of transaction costs incurred. Subsequently, mortgage debt is measured at amortised cost.
Lease liabilities regarding assets held under finance leases are recognised in the balance sheet as liabilities and measured at the inception of the lease at the lower of the fair value of the leased asset and the present value of future lease payments.
On subsequent recognition, lease liabilities are measured at amortised cost. The difference between the present value and the nominal value of lease payments is recognised in the income statement over the term of the lease as a finance charge.
Lease payments regarding operating leases are recognised in the income statement on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease.
Other financial liabilities
Other financial liabilities, including bank and financial loans, trade and other payables, are on initial recognition measured at fair value. The liabilities are subsequently measured at amortised cost.
Deferred income comprises income received relating to subsequent financial years. Deferred income is measured at cost.
Other accounting information
Cash flow statement
The cash flow statement of the ALK Group is presented using the indirect method and shows cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities as well as cash and marketable securities at the beginning and the end of the financial year.
The cash effect of acquisitions and divestments is shown separately under cash flows from investing activities. In the cash flow statement, cash flows concerning acquired companies are recognised from the date of acquisition, while cash flows concerning divested companies are recognised until the date of divestment.
Cash flows from operating activities are stated as net profit, adjusted for non-cash operating items and changes in working capital, less the income tax paid and plus net financial items.
Cash flows from investing activities comprise payments in connection with acquisition and divestment of companies and financial assets as well as purchase, development, improvement and sale of intangible and tangible assets.
Cash flows from financing activities comprise changes to the parent company’s share capital and related costs as well as the raising and repayment of loans, instalments on interest-bearing debt, purchase of treasury shares, settlement of share options and payment of dividends.
Cash flows in currencies other than the functional currency are recognised in the cash flow statement using average exchange rates for the individual months if these are a reasonable approximation of the actual exchange rates at the transaction dates. If this is not the case, the actual exchange rates for the specific days in questions are used.
Cash and marketable securities comprise cash and short-term securities subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value less any overdraft facilities that are an integral part of the ALK Group’s cash management.
Based on the internal reporting used by the Board of Management to assess the results of operations and allocation of resources, the ALK Group has identified one operating segment ‘Allergy treatment’, which is in accordance with the way the activities are organised and managed. In addition, the disclosures in the financial statements include a breakdown of revenue by product line and a geographical breakdown of revenue and non-current assets.
Definitions and ratios
The key ratios have been calculated in accordance with generally accepted financial ratios applied by financial analysts. Definitions are shown on page 70 in the annual report for 2017.
Notes to the parent company financial statements
The financial statements of the parent company ALK-Abelló A/S for the period 1 January to 31 December 2017 have been prepared in accordance with the Danish Financial Statements Act for large reporting class D enterprises.
The financial statements are presented in Danish kroner (DKK), which is also the functional currency of the company.
The accounting policies are unchanged from last year. The accounting policies are as described below.
Differences relative to the ALK Group’s accounting policies
The parent company’s accounting policies for recognition and measurement are in accordance with the ALK Group’s accounting policies with the following exceptions:
Results of investments in subsidiaries
Dividends from investments in subsidiaries are recognised in the parent company’s financial statements when the right to the dividend finally vests, typically at the date of the company’s approval in general meeting of the dividend of the company in question less any write-downs at the investments.
Acquisition of activities from subsidiaries
Acquisition of activities from subsidiaries is accounted for using the purchase method. On initial recognition, goodwill is measured and recognised as the excess of the consideration transferred exceeding the fair value of the net assets acquired at the acquisition date.
Goodwill is measured at cost less accumulated amortisation and impairment. Amortisation is calculated using the straight-line method over the expected useful life, estimated at 10 years. This estimate was made on the basis of estimated useful lives of the assets acquired.
Investments in subsidiaries
Investments in subsidiaries are measured at cost.Where the recoverable amount of the investments is lower than cost, the investments are written down to this lower value.
In addition, cost is written down to the extent that dividends distributed exceed the accumulated earnings in the company since the acquisition date. In the event of indications of impairment, an impairment test is performed of investments in subsidiaries.
Capitalisation of development costs
The Danish Financial Statements Act section 86 (a) requires a reserve for capitalisation of development costs net of tax, which has been disclosed in the statement of equity. In accordance with the transition provisions of the Danish Financial Statement Act, the reserve is established in relation to items capitalised from 1 January 2016.
Other accounting information
Cash flow statement
As allowed under section 86 (4) of the Danish Financial Statements Act, no cash flow statement is presented, as this is included in the consolidated cash flow statement.